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Identifying Models of HVAC Systems Using ARIMAX

Fan Feng, Zheng O'Neill
Model ASHRAE conference in Kansas City, 2019.


A review of smart building sensing system for better indoor environment control

Bing Dong, Vishnu Prakash, Fan Feng, Zheng O'Neill
SensingEnergy and Buildings,2019


This paper aims to provide a systemic review of how indoor sensors influence in managing optimal energy saving, thermal comfort, visual comfort, and indoor air quality in the built environment. The optimal management of energy saving and occupant comfort plays a vital role in the built environment because the occupant's productivity and health are highly influenced by indoor environmental quality. In order to do this, there must be a functional sensing system that connects the environment variables (e.g., temperature) with building environmental control systems such as the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system. This paper starts with an overview of the importance of energy saving and occupant comfort in the built environment. It then discusses sensors and their importance in the built environment and reviews the different types of sensors, which explains them in terms of how they influence the indoor …

Towards Low-Carbon Urban Forms: A Comparative Study on Energy Efficiencies of Residential Neighborhoods in Chongming Eco-Island

Tianren Yang, Haisu Chen, Yisha Zhang, Shihao Zhang, Fan Feng
Smart CityEnergy Prodecia,2016


The hyper-fast urbanization process in China has led to the mixes of traditional and contemporary neighborhoods, especially in the aspects of residential districts. The aim of this paper is to explore the interrelationship between urban form and energy efficiency of the residential neighborhoods on Chongming Eco-Island, which is a leading example in China's urbanization towards low-carbon and sustainability. By the empirical study and simulation on six most dominant neighborhood typologies, it is found that the annual building energy consumption of them vary significantly largely due to the various occupant behaviors. Moreover, the calculation of solar potential and energy trade-offs between production and consumption indicates that the nucleated villages and slab buildings have the greatest retrofitting potentials, which lead to the policy implications for Chongming’ s low energy and low carbon urban management.

The status quo of operation of HVACwater-side systems in China: a perspective from BAS data

Fan Feng, Zhengwei Li, Zhaoning Zhang, Guang Yang, Weijie Zhang
ControlEnergy Prodecia,2017


Building stock is a substantial consumer of energy worldwide, and HVAC systems are substantial consumers in buildings. Therefore, it is of great importance to improve the energy efficiency of HVAC systems. For existing HVAC systems, energy savings can be achieved by optimizing the operation strategies. To identify current chiller operation limitations, and evaluate their impacts on energy consumption, a systematic study has been performed. First, the information about operation strategies in about 15 buildings are collected, by either on-site survey or data mining from BAS data. ...

Data mining based framework to identify rule based operation strategies for buildings with power metering system

Shunian Qiu, Fan Feng, Zhengwei Li, Guang Yang, Peng Xu, Zhenhai Li
ControlBuilding Simulation,2019


Operation strategies influence the building energy efficiency. In order to enhance the building energy efficiency, it’s necessary to adopt proper operation strategies on building equipment. Thus, the identification of existing operation strategies is necessary for the improvement of operation strategies. A data mining (DM) based framework is proposed in this paper to automatically identify the building operation strategies. The framework includes classification and regression tree (CART), and weighted association rule mining (WARM) method, targeting at three types of rule based control strategies: on/off control, sequencing control (for equipment of the same type), and coordinated control (for equipment of different types). The performance of this framework is validated with power metering system data and manual identification results based on on-site survey of three buildings in Shanghai. The validation results suggest that the proposed framework is capable of identifying building operation strategies accurately and automatically. Implemented on the original software named BOSA (Building Operation Strategy Analysis), this framework is promising to be used in engineering field to enhance the efficiency of building operation strategy identification work.

The role of occupant behavior in low carbon oriented residential community planning: A case study in Qingdao

Yingjun Ruan, Jiahui Cao, Fan Feng, Zhengwei Li
Behavior Energy and Buildings, 2017.


When planning a residential community, an important factor鈥搊ccupant behavior鈥搃s often omitted. Previous research suggested that the age of occupants may significantly affect the dwelling time and use of air conditioners, thus should be considered during low carbon oriented residential community planning. In this study, an energy related occupant behavior survey recently conducted in Qingdao city is presented. Through this survey, the thermal preference, dwelling time, and air conditioners usage behavior of three different family structures (young couple family, old couple family, and couple with parents family) are analyzed. These information, together with urban planning parameters (floor area ratio, building coverage ratio, aspect ratio, etc.) are then fed into energy simulation models, to investigate the role of occupant behavior in low carbon oriented residential community planning. The results show that the energy demand of old couple family is more affected by community planning. Aspect ratio is more important than height in terms of space cooling and heating demand. The optimal aspect ratio strongly depends on the type of occupants and HVAC system. In general, aged occupants need more heating energy, thus are better located in buildings with lower aspect ratio. Communities with district heating system and decentralized cooling system need lower aspect ratio than that with other types of HVAC systems. The results have important implications to low carbon oriented residential community planning.

An empirical study of influencing factors on residential building energy consumption in Qingdao City, China

Fan Feng, Zhengwei Li, Yingjun Ruan, Peng Xu
Behavior Energy Procedia, 2016.


Residential building sector is one of the major contributors to global electricity energy consumption. Current researches have demonstrated that the residential building energy consumption is determined by many factors, including climate conditions, household and building characteristics, and occupant behavior. However, the extent to which each factor contributes to the total energy consumption has remained unclear, especially in developing countries such as China. To partially answer this question, an empirical study was conducted in five residential real estates in Qingdao city. Questionnaires were distributed to around 500 families, whose electricity consumption from Feb to Aug, 2015 was then collected from local electricity bureaus. Based on the collected data, correlation analysis was performed to exploit the relative role of each factors. Results reveal that occupant behavior is the most important parameter on cooling energy use, compared with household characteristics and urban geometry.

Data-quality detection and recovery for building energy management and control systems: Case study on submetering

Yangyang Fu, Zhengwei Li, Fan Feng, Peng Xu
Others Science and Technology for the Built Environment, 2016.


Most modern buildings are equipped with building energy management and control systems. These systems can store tremendous amounts of data on buildings’ performance and energy usage. A significant amount of data on buildings’ mechanical devices, particularly electricity-consumption data, is now available for analysis. However, the quality of the collected data is questionable. Some data are mislabeled, and others contain gaps and errors. In this article, a methodology based on a correlation coefficient and a wavelet-based support vector machine predictor is proposed to detect and recover the proportional deviation data faults and faults caused by network communication. After testing this methodology with electricity data collected from a large commercial building, it is found that a high accuracy of faulty data alerts and automated data recovery can be achieved. Considering the wide use of building energy …

A Methodology to Identify Multiple Equipment Coordinated Control with Power Metering System

Fan Feng, Zhengwei Li
ControlEnergy Procedia,2017.


Modern buildings are equipped with advanced Building Energy Monitoring System (BEMS) for energy supervision and management. To fully leverage the power of this system, a dynamic real time data analysis to understand the building operational strategiesis critical. Considering the significant volume of building energy data, a computer aided technique is necessary for any this kind of analysis. However, until now, there still lacks an effective method to automatically identify building operational strategies. In this paper, a new methodology targeting at identify multiple equipment coordinated control is proposed, which adopts Symbolic Aggregation AproXimation (SAX) as data pre-processor and performs a weighted association rule mining algorithm (WARM) to identify the coordinated control strategy. Case studies show that the proposed framework can effectively identify schedule based operational strategies and detect abnormal energy use behavior.

Optimizing the topologies of HVAC water systems in supertall buildings: a pilot study

Fan Feng, Yangyang Fu, Jin Hou, Peng Xu
ControlScience and Technology for the Built Environment,2019.


The vertical topologies of HVAC water systems in supertall buildings are one major concern, which yet has been determined in experience-based manners. This papers, therefore, proposes a computational optimization procedure to search optimal design of system topologies, as well as component sizing and control settings. To reduce the computational efforts, the vertical topologies are simplified by considering only major components(e.g. AHUs, heat exchangers and chillers).Since both electricity consumption and capital cost are primary concerns for system design, the optimization problem has been solved using a two-objective solver, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II(NSGA-II). This optimization problem is then validated using a supertall building in Shanghai, and it is concluded that the generated solutions are superior in terms of both electricity consumption and capital cost. Finally, parametric analyses are conducted to provide insight into the uncontrollable variables (i.e., building location, building characteristics) with the hope that system design can be facilitated.